PS2.251Palaeolithic ratio as a novel measure of how Palaeolithic a diet is: definitions and calculations from Palaeolithic and Mediterranean-like diet

Author(s): 
Björn Rydhög(1), T Jönsson(1), S Lindeberg(1), M Fontes-Villalba(1), Y Granfeldt(2), L Frassetto(3), P Carrera-Bastos(1)
(1) Centre for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
(2) Department of Food Technology,University of Lund, Sweden
(3) Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, USA
Corresponding author: Dr Björn Rydhög, Lunds University, Köpenhamnsvägen, MALMÖ, SWEDEN.
E-mail: bjryd03@gmail.com
Text: 
Background: Previous results indicate a need to quantify how Palaeolithic a diet is. In this paper we conceptualize this notion by defining the novel measure Palaeolithic ratio as the ratio of Palaeolithic food divided by all food in a diet. Food categories defined as Palaeolithic in this respect is fruits, nuts, meat, fish, eggs and vegetables excluding legumes. From reported food intake in a previously reported study with increased glucose tolerance and satiety per calorie and decreased waist circumference after advice to follow a Palaeolithic diet as compared to a Mediterranean-like diet we also calculate Palaeolithic ratios and study their relationship with outcome measures.
Methods:  Twenty-nine male ischaemic heart-disease  patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes type 2, and waist circumference > 94 cm, were randomized to ad libitum consumption of a Palaeolithic diet (n=14) based on lean meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs, and nuts, or a Mediterranean-like diet (n=15) based on whole grains, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruit, fish, oils and margarines during 12 weeks. Palaeolithic ratio for dietary energy, weight and glycaemic Load was calculated as the average ratio of daily intake of Palaeolithic food to all food, as recorded in four day weighed food records.
Results: Palaeolithic ratio for dietary energy, weight and glycaemic Load centred on 85 % for the group advised to follow a Palaeolithic diet and on 40 % for the group advised to follow a Mediterranean-like diet with significant differences between groups for Palaeolithic ratio and absolute amounts of non-Palaeolithic food. for absolute amounts of Palaeolithic food there were significant differences between groups only for weight. Increased Paleolithic ratio and decreased absolute amount of non-Palaeolithic food were associated with improved glucose tolerance, decreased waist circumference and decreased leptin. Decreased absolute amount of non-Palaeolithic food was also associated with increased satiety per calorie.
Conclusions: Increased Palaeolithic ratio and decreased absolute amount of non-palaeolithic food was associated with favourable changes in glucose tolerance, waist circumference and leptin. Decreased absolute amount of non-palaeolithic food was also associated with increased satiety per calorie.